Terminology for membranes and membrane processes ( IUPAC Recommendations 1996) 膜および膜プロセス用語1996 IUPAC推奨

Dialysis, Nanofiltration, Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration Separations透析、ナノ濾過、限外濾過、精密濾過分離((61-75)

Electrically Mediated Separations 電気利用分離(76-83)

Gas, Vapor and Pervaporation Separations ガス、蒸気、パーベーパレーション 分離(84-88)

Reverse Osmosis Separations 逆浸透分離(88-92)


Dialysis, Nanofiltration, Ultrafiltration, and Microfiltration Separations
透析、ナノ濾過、限外濾過、精密濾過分離
61. backflush:
逆洗
:
temporary reversal of the direction of the permeate flow
時々透過流れの方向を逆転すること。
62. bubble point:
バブルポイント:
pressure at which bubbles first appear on one surface of an immersed porous membrane as gas pressure is applied to the other surface upstream face of a membrane
浸積した膜のもう一方の側の気体を加圧したとき、膜表面に最初に気泡が生じる圧力。
63. cake layer:
ケーク層:
layer comprised of rejected particulate materials residing on the upstream face of a membrane
膜の上流側表面に膜を透過しなかった粒子状物がたまった層。
64. concentration polarization:
濃度分極:
concentration profile that has a higher level of solute nearest to the upstream membrane surface compared with the more-or-less well- mixed bulk fluid far from the membrane surface
膜表面からはなれたほぼ完全混合にある液本体の濃度に比較して、膜の上流表面において溶質の濃度が高くなる濃度分布。
65. concentration factor:
濃縮係数:
ratio of the concentration of a component i in the retentate to the concentration of the same component in the feed {Note 1: cF=[(ci)retentate/(ci)feed] (Note: see Fig.1)}[Note 2: Compare retention factor (35)]
供給と非透過流れ中の濃度の比。
66. dialysis:
透析:
membrane process in which transport is driven primarily by concentration differences, rather than by pressure or electrical-potential differences, across the thickness of a membrane
物質移動が圧力や電位差ではなく膜を介する濃度差でおこる膜プロセス。
67. dialysis permeability coefficient:
透析透過係数:
permeability coefficient(28) based on a transmembrane driving force expressed in terms of the concentration difference of a given component
推進力を濃度差とする透過係数。
68. gel fouling layer:
ゲルファウリング層:
highly swollen fouling layer comprising a three-dimensional, possibly network, structure residing at the surface of a membrane
膜表面で形成される3次元構造(網目構造)の高含水率度のファウリング層。
69. hemodialysis:
血液透析:
dialysis process(66) in which undesired metabolites and toxic by-products, such as urea and creatine, are removed from blood
尿素・クレアチンのような生体に好ましくない代謝物や有害な副生成物を血液から除去する透析プロセス。
70. hemofiltration:
血液濾過:
ultrafiltration process (76) in which undesired metabolites and toxic by-products, such as urea and creatine, are removed from blood
尿素・クレアチンのような生体に好ましくない代謝物や有害な副生成物を血液から除去する限外濾過プロセス。
71. hindered transport:
相互作用下の移動:
combined partition, diffusion and convection process in which the effective partition, diffusion and viscous drag coefficients in a restricted environment depend upon the ratio of the effective radius of the penetrant molecule to that of pore
分配・拡散・対流が相互に影響しあうプロセス。膜の細孔中で分配係数・拡散係数・粘性係数の有効値が透過分子の有効径と細孔の径の比に依存する。
72. microfiltration:
精密濾過:
pressure -driven membrane-based separation process in which particles and dissolved macromolecules larger than 0.1μm are rejected
0.1
μmより大きい粒子や高分子が阻止される圧力駆動の膜分離プロセス。
73. molecular-weight cutoff:
分子量カットオフ:
molecular weight of a solute corresponding to a 9O% rejection coefficient(33) for a given membrane
膜の阻止率が90%となる溶質の分子量。
74. nanofiltration:
ナノ濾過:
pressure-driven membrane-based separation proress in which particles and dissolved molecules smaller than about 2nm are rejected
2nm
より小さい程度の粒子や高分子が阻止される圧力駆動の膜分離プロセス。
75. ultrafiltration:
限外濾過:
pressure-driven membrane-based separation proccess in which particles and dissolved macromolecules smaller than 0.1μm and larger than about 2nm are rejected
0.1μm2nmの範囲の粒子や高分子が阻止される圧力駆動の膜分離プロセス。
Electrically Mediated Separations電気利用分離
76. anion-exchange membrane:
陰イオン交換膜:
membrane containing fixed cationic charges and mobile anions that can be exchanged with other anions present in an external fluid in contact with the membrane
固定陽イオン電荷と可動陰イオンを膜中に持ち、外部流体中のほかの陰イオンと交換可能な膜。
77. bipolar membrane:
両極膜:
synthetic membrane containing two oppositely charged ion-exchanging layers in contact with each other
ふたつの反対の荷電をもつイオン交換層を交互に重ねた合成膜。
78. cation-exchange membrane:
イオン交換膜:
membrane containing fixed anionic charges and mobile cations which can be exchanged with the other cations present in an external fluid in contact with the membrane
固定陰イオン電荷と可動陽イオンを膜中に持ち、外部流体中のほかの陽イオンと交換可能な膜。
79. charge-mosaic membranes:
モザイク荷電膜:
synthetic membrane composed of two-dimensional or three-dimensional alternating cation- and anion-exchange channels throughout the membrane
2次元または3次元的に交互に陰イオン交換・陽イオン交換チャネルから形成された合成膜。
80. Donnan exclusion:
ドナン阻止:
reduction in concentration of mobile ions within an ion exchange membrane due to the presence of fixed ions of the same sign as the mobile ions
イオン交換膜の内部で同種の固定イオンの存在により、可動イオンの濃度が減少すること。
81. electro-dialysis:
電気透析:
membrane-based separation process in which ions are driven through an ion-selective membrane under the influence of an electric field
イオンを電場によりイオン選択性膜中を透過させる膜分離プロセス。
82. electro-osmosis:
電気浸透:
process by which water is transported across the thickness of an anion-exchange(76) or cation-exchange membrane(78) under an applied electricfield
電場により陰イオンまたは陽イオン交換膜中を水が移動するプロセス。
83. limiting current density:
限界電流密度:
current density at which dramatic increases in resistance are observed in an ion exchange membrane system under the influence of an applied electric field between the upstream and downstream
イオン交換膜を介して電場をかけた場合、抵抗が急に増加する電流密度。
Gas, Vapor and Pervaporation Separationsガス、蒸気、パーベーパレーション 分離
84. ideal separation factor:
理想分離係数:
parameter defined as the ratio of the permeability coefficient of component A to that of component B and equal to the "separation factor" (37) where a perfect vacuum exists at the downstream membrane face for gas and vapor permeation systems
A成分とB成分の透過係数の比で定義されるパラメータ。気体・蒸気透過では膜の下流側が真空の場合の分離係数に等しい。
85. pervaporation:
パーベーパレーション:
membrane based process in which the feed and retentate streams are both liquid phases while permeant emerges at the downstream face of the membrane as a vapor
供給と非透過流れが液で、膜の下流側への透過物が蒸気である膜分離プロセス。
86. solution-diffusion(sorption-diffusion):
溶解-拡散(収着-拡散):
molecular-scale process in which penetrant is sorbed into the upstream membrane face from the external phase, moves by molecular diffusion in the membrane to the downstream face and leaves into the external gas, vapor or liquid phase in contact with the membrane
透過物が外部相から膜の上流表面に溶解し、下流方向に膜内を分子拡散により移動し、膜内から膜に接するガス・蒸気・液相へ移動する分子スケールのプロセス。
87. sweep:
スイープ:
nonpermeating stream directed past the downstream membrane face to reduce downstream permeant concentration
下流側の透過物の濃度を下げるために膜下流面を横切る方向に流す非透過流れ。
Reverse Osmosis Separations 逆浸透分離
88. brackish water:
カン水:
term used to indicate water having a total dissolved-solids content that is less than that of sea water but above that of potable water
全溶存固体量が海水以下、飲料水以上の水。
89. feed pretreatment:
前処理:
process carried out on a crude feed stream, prior to feeding to a membrane separation system, to eliminate objectionable components such as biological agents and colloids that might impede the stable operation of membrane
膜分離装置に供給する前に、原水から膜操作を妨げる生物やコロイドなどの成分を除くための処理。
90. permeate post-treatment:
透過物の後処理:
one or more final conditioning steps to improve permeate quality, e.g., contacting with anion exchange resins to remove trace ions in the permeate of a reverse osmosis product stream
透過物の品質を上げるための最終処理。逆浸透透過物中の微量イオンを除去するためにオン交換樹脂と接触させる操作がその例。
91. potable water:
飲料水:
term used to indicate water having a total dissolved solids content of less than 500 ppm with a sufficiently low level of biological agents, suspended solids, organic odour- and colour-generating components to be safe and palatable for drinking
飲用として安全でおいしい水のこと。有機物・懸濁固体・臭いや色の成分が十分に低い濃度であり、全溶解固体量が500ppm以下であること。
92. reverse osmosis:
逆浸透:
liquid-phase pressure-driven separation process in which applied transmembrane pressure causes selective movement of solvent against its osmotic pressure difference
膜片側の加圧により浸透圧差と逆方向の溶媒の選択的移動が引き起こされる液相の圧力駆動分離プロセス。

 


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