Terminology for membranes and membrane processes ( IUPAC Recommendations 1996) 膜および膜プロセス用語1996 IUPAC推奨

Carrier Mediated ( Facilitated) Separations キャリアを利用した(促進)分離(46-60)

Carrier-Mediated(Facilitated) Separations

46. anchored ( bound) carrier: distinct species bonded chemically to fixed sites within a membrane for the purpose of increasing the selective sorption and flux of a specific component in a feed stream relative to all other components


47. carrier complexation coefficient, Kc, [kmol m-3]: parameter defined as the ratio of the rate constants for the second order complexation and first order decomplexation reaction between a carrier and a penetrant: vis., A + M =AM [Note 1: Kc =kc/kd, where A & M, resp., are a penetrant and a carrier site within a membrane ( see note 2)] [Note 2: both anchored carrier sites (46) and mobile carrier sites (59) are possible


48. carrier complexation: phenomenon in which carrier molecules from a coordinated structure with penetrant molecules


49. carrier deactivation: chemical transformations involving a carrier entity which render it less capable of undergoing the desired interaction with a penetrant


50. carrier leaching: loss of carrier due to its partitioning by mass transport into one or both external phases


51. carrier-mediated (facilitated) transport: process in which chemically distinct carrier species (46, 59) from complexes with a specific component in the feedstream, thereby increasing the flux (14) of this component relative to other component


52. complexation rate constant, kc[kmol-1 m3 s-1]: carrier complexation rate divided by the product of the local concentrations of the carrier and the complexable component, viz., kc =(complexation rate)/[(c)carrier(c)complexable component] where concentrations are given in [kmol m-3] and complexation rate is given in [kmol m-3 s-1]


53. coupled transport: process in which the flux of one component between the upstream and downstream is linked to the flux of a second component


54. Damkohler number: dimensionless number equal to the characteristic time (l2/DAM) for diffusion of complexed component across a membrane of thickness, l , divided by the characteristic time(kd-1) for the decomplexation reaction between a carrier(M) and a complexed penetrant, A, viz., l2/(DAMkd) when DAN is the effective diffusion coefficient of the complexed carrier entity in the membrane


55. decomplexation rate constant, kd[s-1]: ratio of the decomplexation rate to the product of the local concentration of the complexed carrier, viz., kd =(decomplexation rate)/(c)cmplexed carrier {Note: typical units for decomplexation rate are [kmol m-3 s-1], and for complexed carrier are [kmol m-3]


56. enhancement factor, ε: ratio of the flux of a component, i (14) across a carrier- containing membrane divided by the transmembrane flux of the same component across an otherwise identical membrane without carrier (Note: ε=[(Ji)with carrier/( Ji)without carrier]}


57. facilitation factor: parameter equal to the enhancement factor(56) minus one (Note: F=ε-1)


58. liquid membrane: liquid phase existing either in supported or unsupported form that serves as a membrane barrier between two phases


59. mobile carrier: distinct species moving freely within a membrane for the purpose of increasing the selective sorption and flux of a specific component in a feed stream relative to all other components


60. uphill transport: process in which diffusion of a component occurs from a less concentrated feed stream to a more concentrated permeate stream