Terminology for membranes and membrane processes ( IUPAC Recommendations 1996) 膜および膜プロセス用語1996 IUPAC推奨

General Terms一般語句(21-45)


21. membrane distillation:
膜蒸留:
distillation process in which the liquid and gas phases are separated by a porous membrane, the pores of which are not wetted by the liquid phase
気液相が多孔質膜で隔てられた蒸留プロセス。膜の細孔には液が侵入していない。

22. membrane module(cell):
膜モジュール(セル):
manifold assembly containing a membrane or membranes to separate the streams of feed, permeate, and retentate (Note: see FIg.2a-c)
供給・透過・未透過の各流れに分岐する、膜を保持する機器。
23. membrane partition (distribution) coefficient:
膜分配係数:
parameter equal to the equilibrium concentration of a component (ci(m)) in a membrane divided by the corresponding equilibrium concentration of the component in the external phase in contact with the membrane surface, ci(e). (viz., K= ci(m)/ ci(e).)
ある成分の膜中の平衡濃度と膜表面に接する外部の相の平衡濃度との比。
24. membrane physical aging:
膜の劣化:
change in the transport properties of a membrane over a period of time due to physical chemical structural alterations
物理化学的構造変化により時間によって膜の移動物性が変化すること。
25. membrane post-treatment:
膜の後処理:
process carried out on a membrane after its essential structure has been formed but prior to its exposure to an actual feed stream (20)
膜の基本的構造が形成されたあと実際の供給流れにさらす前におこなう処理。
26. membrane reactor:
膜反応器:
device for simultaneously carrying out a reaction and membrane-based separation in the same physical enclosure
反応と膜分離が同時におこなわれる装置。
27. penetrant(permeant):
透過物:
entity from a phase in contact with one of the membrane surfaces that passes through the membrane
膜表面側の相から膜を通過して出てくるもの。
28. permeability coefficient, Pi,[kmol m m-2 s-1 kPa-1]:
透過係数:
parameter defined as a transport flux, Ji, per unit transmembrane driving force per unit membrane thickness, viz., Pi = Ji /[(transmembrane driving force of component i/l] {Note: other commonly used units for Pi include [m3 m m-2 s-1 kPa-1],[m3(measured at standard temperature and pressure) m m-2 s-1 kPa-1] or [kg m m-2 s-1 kPa-1]}
流束を単位膜厚みあたりの推進力で割った値で定義されるパラメータ。
29. permeance( pressure normalized flux), [kmol m-2 s-1 kPa-1]:
透過速度(圧力で規格化した流束):
transport flux per unit transmembrane driving force, viz., Pi /l,(28) {Note: other commonly used units include [m3 m-2 s-1 kPa-1],[kg m-2 s-1 kPa-1], or [m3(measured at standard temperature and pressure) m-2s-1kPa-1]}
単位あたりの膜を介した推進力で割った流束。
30. permeate:
透過流れ:
stream containing penetrants that leaves a membrane module (Note: see Figs. 1 and 2)
膜モジュールから出る透過物の流れ。
31. perstraction:
膜抽出:
separation process in which membrane permeation and extraction phenomena occur by contacting the downstream with an extracting solvent
膜の下流側を抽出用溶媒に接触させることで膜透過と抽出をおこなう分離プロセス。
32. relative recovery, ηη,B(substance efficiency):
回収率(実質効率):
amount-of-substance of a component B collected in a useful product, ηB,out, divided by the amount-of-substance of that component entering the process, ηB,in: ηη,B=ηB,out/ηB,in [Note: in membrane separations, the useful product may be either the retained material ( or retentate) or the permeated material ( or permeate)]
製品中の成分Bの量をプロセス入口の量で割った値。(注:膜分離では製品が未透過物の場合と透過物の場合がある。)
33. rejection factor, R:
阻止率:
parameter equal to one minus the ratio the concentrations of a component (i) on the downstream and upstream sides of a membrane {Note 1:R=1- [(ci)downstream/(ci)upstream]} [Note 2: concentrations may be either in the bulk ("Apparent Rejection Factor") or at the membrane surface ("Intrinsic Rejection Factor")] [Note 3: rejection factor refers to a local relationship between upstream and downstream concentrations while retention factor (35) and relative recovery (32) refers to feed and retentate or permeate leaving the module]
1から成分iの下流側濃度と上流側濃度の比を引いたパラメータ。 [2濃度は液本体の場合(みかけの阻止率)と膜表面の場合(真の阻止率)がある。][3、阻止率は局所値である。一方、未透過係数や回収率はモジュール出口流れで定義される。]
34. retentate (raffinate):
未透過物(透過残物):
stream that has been depleted of penetrants that leaves the membrane modules without passing through the membrane to the downstream
膜の下流側に透過せずに膜モジュールを出る流れ。
35. retention factor, rF:
未透過係数:
parameter defined as one minus the rati of permeate concentration to the retentate(34) concentration of a component (i) {Note 1: rF=1-[(ci)p/(ci)r]} [Note 2. "p" and "r" refer to permeate (30) and retentate (34). See Fig. 1][Note 3: Compare rejection factor.(33)]
1から透過物中の濃度と未透過物中の濃度との比を差し引いたパラメータ。
36. selective membrane skin:
活性膜表面層:
region, often located at the upstream face of an asymmetric membrane, that forms a thin, distinguishable layer primarily responsible for determining the permeability of the asymmetric membrane
非対称膜中の透過性を支配する薄い、明確に区別できる層(多くは非対称膜の上流側表面)
37. separation coefficient, SC(AB):
分離度:
ratio of the compositions of component A and B in the downstream relative to the ratio of compositions of these components in the upstream {Note 1: For example, if compositions are expressed in mole fractions (XA and XB), SC(AB)=[ XA / XB]downstream/[ XA / XB]upstream} (Note 2: The separation coefficient can also be defined equivalently in terms of concentrations in the downstream and upstream, since only ratios are involved )[Note 3: The separation coefficient refers to a local relation ship between concentrations on the upstream (44) and ownstream (10) concentrations while the separation factor(38) refers to retentate(34) and permeate (30) leaving the module]
下流における成分
ABの組成比と上流における組成比の割合。(2:濃度でも定義される。)(3:separaton coefficientは上流と下流の濃度で定義される、一方separation factorは膜モジュール出口の未透過流れと透過流れで定義される。)
38. separation factor, SF(AB):
分離係数:
ratio of the compositions of components A and B in the permeate relative to the composition ratio of these components in the retentate {Note 1: For example, SF(AB)= [ XA / XB]Permeate/[ XA / XB]Retentate} (Note 2: The separation factor can also be defined in terms of concentrations in the permeate and retentate since only ratios are involved. Note: see Fig..1) [Note 3. Compare separation coefficient.(37)]
透過流れにおける成分ABの組成比と未透過流れにおける組成比の割合。(2:比で定義されるので透過物と未透過物の濃度で定義してもよい。)
39. sol-gel membrane formation:
ゾル-ゲル膜形成:
multistep process for making membranes by a reaction between two chemically multifunctional materials, dissolved in a solvent, that results in a network structure with solvent retained in the network followed by heat treatment to achieve a desired pore structure
溶媒中に溶解したふたつの材料間の反応により溶媒を含む網目構造を形成させたのち、熱処理により細孔構造を持たせる多段膜形成プロセス。
40. stage cut:
段カット:
parameter defined as the fractional amount of the total feed entering a membrane module that passes through the membrane as permeate (Note: see Fig.1)
膜モジュールに入った供給流れのうち透過物として膜を通過した割合。
41. synthetic (artificial) membrane:
合成(人工):
membrane formed by a process not occurring in nature
自然界ではおこらないプロセスで形成された膜。
42. thermally-induced phase-separation membrane formation:
熱誘導相離膜形成法:
process in which a dissolved polymer is precipitated or coagulated by controlled cooling to form a membrane structure
ポリマー溶液をある早さで冷却することにより凝固させ、膜構造を形成するプロセス。
43. track-etch membrane formation:
照射―エッチング膜形成法:
process for forming porous membranes with well-defined pores by exposing a dense film to ion bombardment followed by etching of the damaged region (Note 3: Usually produces pores with a narrow size distribution)
均質膜にイオンを照射したのちエッチング処理することにより孔径のそろった多孔質膜を形成するプロセス。
44. upstream:
上流:
side of a membrane into which penetrants enter rom the feed stream
膜の透過物が入る側。
45. wet-phase separation membrane formation:
湿式相分離膜形成法:
process in which a dissolved polymer is precipitated by immersion in a non-solvent bath to form a membrane structure
ポリマー溶液を非溶媒に浸積することで凝固させ、膜構造を形成するプロセス。

 


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