Terminology for membranes and membrane processes ( IUPAC Recommendations 1996) 膜および膜プロセス用語 1996 IUPAC推奨

General Terms一般語句(1-20)


General Terms 一般語句

1. asymmetric membrane:
非対称膜
:
membrane constituted of two or more structural planes of non-identical morphologies(18)
形態が同じでない2つ以上の層からなる膜
2. co-current flow:
並流:
flow pattern through a membrane module in which the fluids on the upstream and the downstream sides of the membrane move parallel to the membrane surface and in the same directions (Note: see Fig. 1a)
膜モジュール内において膜の上流と下流側の流れが膜面に平行にかつ同方向に流れるフローパターン。
3. completely-mixed(perfectly-mixed)flow:
完全混合流れ:
flow through a membrane module in which fluids on both the upstream and downstream sides of the membrane are individually well-mixed (Note: see Fig.1b)
膜モジュール内で膜の上流と下流の流れとも各々完全混合である流れ。
4. composite membrane:
複合膜:
membrane having chemically or structurally distinct layers
化学的または構造的に異なる層なら成る膜
5. continuous membrane column:
連続膜塔:
membrane module(s) arranged in a manner to allow operation analogous to that of a distillation column, with each module acting as a stage
蒸留塔と相似の操作となるよう構成された膜モジュール。各膜モジュールが段として機能する。
6. counter-current flow:
向流:
flow through a membrane module in which the fluids on the upstream and downstream sides of the membrane move parallel to the membrane surface but in opposite directions (Note: see Fig. 1c)
膜モジュール内において膜の上流と下流の流れが膜面に平行にかつ逆方向に流れるフローパターン。

7. cross flow:
クロスフロー:
flow through a membrane module in which the fluid on the upstream side of the membrane moves parallel to the membrane surface and the fluid on the downstream side of the membrane moves away from the membrane in the direction normal to the membrane surface (Note: see Fig. 1e)
上流側の流れは膜に平行に流れ、一方下流側の流れは膜面に垂直に通過する流れ。
8. dead-end flow:
デッドエンド流れ:
flow through a membrane module in which the only outlet for upstream liquid is through the membrane (Note: see Fig.1e)
上流流体の出口が膜を通した方向のみにある膜モジュールの流れ。
9. dense(non-porous)membrane:
緻密(非多孔質):
membrane with no detectable pores
観察できる範囲では孔がない膜。
10. downstream:
下流:
side of a membrane from which permeate emerges
膜の透過物が出る側。
11. dry-phase separation membrane formation:
乾式 相分離膜形成:
process in which a dissolved polymer is preripitated by evaporation of a sufficient amount of solvent to form a membrane structure (Note: Appropriate mixtures of additives are present in solution with the polymer to alter its precipitation tendency during solvent evaporation)
溶媒の蒸発により溶液中のポリマーが凝固して膜の構造を形成するプロセス。(注:溶媒蒸発時の凝固状態を変えるために適切な添加物が溶液に加えられる。)
12. dry-wet phase separation membrane formation:
乾式― 湿式相分離膜形成:
combination of the dry-(11) and the wet-phase formation processes(45)
乾式、湿式膜形成プロセスの組み合わせ。
13. dynamic membrane formation:
ダイナミック膜形成:
process in which an active layer is formed on the membrane surface by the deposition of substances contained in the fluid being treated
処理流体中の物質の堆積により膜表面に分離活性層が形成されるプロセス。
14. flux,
J
i,[kmol m-2 s-1]:
流束:
number of moles, volume, or mass of a specified component i passing per unit time trough a unit of membrane surface area normal to the thickness direction. {Note: other commonly used units for Ji include [m3 m-2 s-1], or [kg m-2 s-1] or [m3(measured at standard temperature and pressure) m-2 s-1]}
成分iが膜厚方向と垂直の単位膜面積を単位時間に通過するモル数、体積、質量
15. fouling:
ファウリング:
process resulting in loss of performance of a membrane due to the deposition of suspended or dissolved substances on its external surfaces, at its pore openings, or within its pores
溶液中の懸濁物や溶質が膜の表面・膜細孔の入口や内部に堆積して膜性能の低下をひきおこす現象。
16. homogeneous membrane:
均質膜:
membrane with essentially the same structural and transport properties throughout its thickness
膜厚方向に同一の構造および透過性をもつ膜。
17. Langmuir-Blodgett(LB) membrane:
ラングミュア-ブロジェット膜:
synthetic composite membrane formed by sequential depositing of one or more monolayers of surface-active component onto a porous or non porous support
多孔質または非多孔質面上に界面活性物質の単分子層を多層に重ねて作成した合成複合膜。
18. membrane:
:
structure, having lateral dimensions much greater than its thickness, through which mass transfer may occur under a variety of driving forces
厚みに比べて大きい面を持ち、各種の推進力によりそれを通した物質移動がおこりえる構造体。
19. membrane compaction:
膜の圧密化:
compression of membrane structure due to a pressure difference across its thickness
厚み方向の圧力差により膜構造が圧縮されること。
20. membrane conditioning (pretreatment):
膜の前処理:
process carried out on a membrane after the completion of its preparation and prior to its use in a separation application (Note 1: thermal annealing to reliev stress or pre-equilibration in a solution similar to the feed stream it will contact are examples of conditioning treatments) [Note 2: conditioning treatments differ from post-treatments(25), since the latter occur before exposure to feed type solutions, while conditioning may occur using actual feed solutions)
製膜後、その膜を分離に用いる前にある処理を施すこと。(1:膜内応力を除くための熱処理や供給液に似た溶液であらかじめ平衡状態を作ることがその例である。)(2:前処理は「製膜後の処理」とは区別される。製膜後の処理は供給溶液にさらす前におこなわれるが、前処理は実際の供給液を用いて行われる場合がある。)

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